Procedural programming is a type of programming in which the steps taken to solve a problem are represented as a list of instructions. This type of programming is often used to create software programs that follow a set of rules or procedures.

The procedure is a set of instructions that, when followed, produce a desired result. Procedures are usually written as a list of steps. They can be simple, like “add two numbers,” or more complex, like “find the shortest path through a maze.”

In procedural programming, the programmer writes a list of instructions for the computer to follow. The instructions are often called “programming code.” The code is written in a language that the computer can understand.

The code is then run on a computer. The computer follows the instructions in the code and produces a result. The result is often what the programmer wanted, but it could also be something different.

Procedural programming has been around for many years and is still used today. It is sometimes seen as outdated because newer programming paradigms, such as object-oriented programming, have been developed. However, procedural programming can still be useful in certain situations.

Compared to functional programming and object-oriented programming, procedural programming has a number of advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages of procedural programming

  1. It is often easier to write and understand procedural code. This is because the code is written as a list of instructions, which can be followed like a recipe.

  2. Procedural code is often more efficient than other types of code. This is because the computer can execute the instructions in the code more quickly.

  3. Procedural programming can be used to solve problems that are too difficult for other types of programming. This is because the programmer can break down a complex problem into a series of small steps, which can be coded as procedures.

Disadvantages of procedural programming

  1. Procedural code can be difficult to change or update. This is because each procedure must be changed individually, and all the procedures must work together correctly.

  2. If a problem arises in procedural code, it can be difficult to find and fix the issue. This is because the code is written as a list of instructions, so it can be hard to trace the execution of the code and find where the error occurred.

  3. Procedural programming can lead to “spaghetti code.” This happens when programmers add new features or make changes to existing features without properly planning or organizing the code. As a result, the code becomes a tangled mess that is hard to read and understand

Overall procedural programming these days is seen as an outdated paradigm as newer paradigms have been developed.